Aug. 2nd, 2012

asterisks: photograph of a girl on a swing flying over a cityscape. (swing.)
Sociology is defined as the systematic study of human society and social interaction.

According to sociologist C. Wright Mills, the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society is referred to as the sociological imagination.

A society is a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

Socialization is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.

Children whose biological and emotional needs are met in settings characterized by affection, warmth, and closeness see the world as a safe and comfortable place.

From a functionalist perspective, individual conformity to existing norms is not taken for granted; rather basic individual needs and desires must be balanced against the needs of the social structure.

Social interaction is/are the process(es) by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society.

Social structure is the complex framework of societal institutions (such as the economy, politics, and religion) and the social practices (such as rules and social roles) that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on people’s behavior.

Social structure is essential for the survival of society and for the well-being of individuals because it provides a social web of familial support and social relationships that connects each of us to the larger society.

From a functionalist perspective, instrumental leadership provides emotional support for members; this type of leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, and harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed. FALSE

The Milgram study provides evidence that obedience to authority may be more common than most of us would like to believe. None of the “teachers” challenged the process before they had applied 300 volts. Almost two-thirds went all the way to what could have been a deadly jolt of electricity if the shock generator had been real. TRUE

Deviance is any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs.

We are most familiar with behavioral deviance, based on a person’s intentional or inadvertent actions. For example, a person may engage in intentional deviance by drinking too much or robbing a bank, or in inadvertent deviance by losing money in a Las Vegas casino or laughing at a funeral.

Social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on the control over basic resources.

Sociologist Max Weber’s term life chances refers to the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care.

The income gap between the richest and the poorest 20 percent of the world population continues to widen.

The income gaps between the richest and the poorest countries of the world are more pronounced than they are in the United States.

Race is a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes.

Categories of people referred to as a race include Native Americans, Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Americans.

Objectification is the process of treating people as if they were things, not human beings. Typically, this occurs when we judge people on the basis of their physical appearance rather than on the basis of their individual qualities or actions.

Sex refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males.

According to sociologist Emile Durkheim, education is crucial for promoting solidarity and stability in society. Education is the “influence exercised by adult generations on those that are not yet ready for social life.” In other words, we can learn from what others have already experienced.

There has been a decline in the number of parents who are teaching their own children through home schooling. FALSE

What constitutes a “family” has been widely debated. For many years, the standard sociological definition of family was a group of people who are related to one another by bonds of blood, marriage, or adoption and who live together, form an economic unit, and bear and raise children.

An illness is socially defined and may change over time and between cultures. For example, in the United States, obesity is viewed as unhealthy whereas in other times and places, obesity signaled that a person was prosperous and healthy.

According to conflict theorists, physicians—who hold a legal monopoly over medicine—benefit from the existing structure because they can charge inflated fees.

An important relationship exists between population size and the availability of food, water, energy, and housing. Population size, composition, and distribution are also connected to issues such as poverty, racial and ethnic diversity, and shifts in the age structure of society, and concerns about environmental degradation. TRUE

Changes in fertility, mortality, and migration affect the population composition, which refers to the biological and social characteristics of a population, including age, sex, race, marital status, education, occupation, income, and size of household.

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asterisks: pink heels with ribbon bows (Default)
hilda carneiros

August 2012

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